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Monday, January 21, 2019

We all need contacts: How organelles hug in cells

Scientists have made a breakthrough in understanding how different compartments (or organelles) of human cells interact.

Team uncovers cellular responses to bird flu vaccine

New research eavesdrops on gene expression in human immune system cells before and after vaccination against bird flu, exposing cellular responses associated with a vaccine constituent called AS03, short for adjuvant system 03. Using massive computation, the investigators pursue a systems biology approach, providing a new wealth of detail about vaccine responses and data for the generation of new hypotheses.

How bacteria exploit a chink in the body’s armor

Scientists have discovered how a unique bacterial enzyme can blunt the body's key weapons in its fight against infection.

New findings on how plants manage immune response

New research has uncovered a previously unknown means by which plants are able to regulate how their immune systems respond to pathogens.

Seeking structure with metagenome sequences

Scientists now report that structural models have been generated for 12 percent of the protein families that had previously had no structural information available.

How much drought can a forest take?

Why do some trees die in a drought and others don't? And how can we predict where trees are most likely to die in future droughts? Scientists have examined those questions in a new study.

New England’s 1816 ‘Mackerel Year’ and climate change today

Aquatic ecologists, climate scientists and environmental historians in New England recount their many-layered, multidisciplinary investigation into the catastrophic effects of the 1815 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora on coastal fish and commercial fisheries in the Gulf of Maine. They say the tale may carry lessons for intertwined human-natural systems facing climate change around the world today.

Sea-surface temps during last interglacial period like modern temps

Sea-surface temperatures during the last interglaciation period were like those of today, a new study reports. The trend is worrisome, as sea levels during the last interglacial period were between six and nine meters above their present height.

Moth gut bacterium defends its host by making antibiotic

Nearly half of all insects are herbivores, but their diets do not consist of only plant material. It is not uncommon for potentially harmful microorganisms to slip in during a feast. Researchers now report that these insects use an ironic strategy to resist microbial infections. A bacterial species commonly found in the gut of the cotton leafworm and other moths secretes a powerful antimicrobial peptide, killing off competitors.

Treated carbon pulls radioactive elements from water

Scientists have developed inexpensive, oxidized carbon particles that extract radioactive metals from water. They said their materials may help purify contaminated waters stored after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

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